Rigid PVC Applications :
According to the final report of Vinyl 2010cadmium was eliminated across Europe by 2007.
The advanced substitution of lead-based stabilizers is also confirmed in the same document showing a decreasing of 75% since 2000 and ongoing.
This is confirmed by the corresponding growth in calcium-based stabilizers, used as a different to lead-based stabilizers, more and more, also outside Europe.
Tin based stabilizers are mostly used in Europe for rigid, apparent applications due to the high temperature processing conditions used.
The situation in North America is different where tin systems are used for almost all-rigid PVC applications.
Tin stabilizers can separate into two main groups, the first group contain those with tin-oxygen bonds and the second group with tin-sulphur bonds.
According to the European Stabiliser producers most organotin stabilisers have already been effectively REACH registered.