History :


Polystyrene was founded in 1839 by an apothecary in Berlin with the name of Simon, From storax, the resin of the Turkish sweet gum tree Liquidambar orientalis, he distilled an oily material, a monomer that he named it styrol. Some days after, Simon discovers that the styrol had thickened, maybe from oxidation; into a jelly he dubbed styrol oxide ("Styroloxyd"). in 1845 Jamaican chemist John Buddle Blyth and German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann showed that the same alteration of styrol occurred in the lack of oxygen. They called their substance metastyrol. Analysis later present that it was chemically similar to Styroloxyd. In 1866 Marcelin Berthelot correctly identified the formation of metastyrol/Styroloxyd from styrol as a polymerization process. after 80 years it was comprehended that heating of styrol starts a chain reaction that produces macromolecules, following the thesis of German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger (1881–1965). This finally led to the substance receiving its present name, polystyrene.

one company started manufacturing polystyrene in Ludwigshafen, about 1931, hoping it would be an appropriate replacement for die-cast zinc in many applications. Success was achieved when they developed a reactor vessel that extruded polystyrene through a heated tube and cutter, producing polystyrene in pellet form.

In 1941, Dow Chemical created a Styrofoam process.

Before 1949, the chemical engineer Fritz Stastny (1908–1985) developed pre-expanded PS beads by joining aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane. These beads are the raw material for moulding parts or extruding sheets. BASF and Stastny applied for a patent that was issued in 1949. The moulding process was demonstrated at the Kunststoff Messe 1952 in Düsseldorf. Products were named Styropor.

The crystal structure of isotactic polystyrene was reported by Giulio Natta.
In 1954, the Koppers Company, Inc. in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, developed expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam.
In 1960, Dart Container, the largest manufacturer of foam cups, shipped their first order.
In 1988, the first U.S. ban of general polystyrene foam was enacted in Berkeley, California.